The sentence "suas le Gàidhlig" therefore would be "up with a Gaelic", not "up with Gaelic". So it has to be "Suas leis a' Ghàidhlig".
Yesno. Proper nouns (e.g. Scotland, Moscow, Taichi...; as opposed to common nouns e.g. cat, dog, fish, table...) in most languages by definition are definite and do not require any markers for definitiness. The principle works along these lines: if you can say the word without the definite article and someone can then go and point at the specific thing you indicated, it's a proper noun. Else it's a common noun. If you say "table", people can't point at the specific item indicated because there's a millions of tables in the multiverse. On the other hand, if you say Mao Zedong or Scotland, everyone knows exactly who or what you are talking about.
Notwithstanding, some languages allow or even demand the use of the article with proper nouns or names. In the south of Germany for example first names are always preceded by the article if the person is known to both. So if I personally knew Angela Merkl, I'd refer to her as "die Angela".
Gaelic allows the use of the article with certain proper nouns, most prominently place-names and language names. As far as I can ascertain, the use of the definite article is technically optional although practically, as Gaelic speakers prefer the use of the definite article when case-marking (even in statement that in English would demand an indefinite construction), the article is more likely to appear when the language or place-name is marked for case (genitive usually).
For example, in tha Gearmailtis toinnte
Gearmailtis is not case-marked and happily stands as Gearmailtis
or a' Ghearmailtis
. But if you wanted to say that the verbs of German are complicated, you are more likely to hear tha gnìomhairean na Gearmailtis toinnte
that tha gnìomhairean Gearmailtis toinnte
Other pairs might be:Tha Beurla agam
Tha mi ag ionnsachadh na Beurla
Bhruidhinn mi Gàidhlig.
Bhruidhinn mi ris sa Ghàidhlig.
This is especially obvious in those old, native words which require obligatory definite articles in the genitive:Muinntir na h-Alba
Poblachd na h-Éireann
There are of course many counter examples as these are tendencies, not rules (except for na h-Alba
and na h-Éireann
"A' Ghàidhlig an-diugh" and "Facail Beurla a thàinig on Ghàidhlig", but why do they say "Ag ionnsachadh Gàidhlig"
Odd, should be Facail Bheurla
but hey... I suspect it's ag ionnsachadh Gàidhlig
for a technical reason - space.